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How To Do A 24 Hour Urine Collection

Decide on the day and time to start the collection. In most instances, a blood test is required on the day of completing the test, therefore it is usually best to start in the early morning of a day prior to a hospital or GP visit (say between 6 and 8am) Write on the bottle the date and time you start.
When you start the collection empty your bladder and DISCARD the urine into the toilet. All urine passed in the next 24 hour period should be passed into the bottle.
It is important that you collect the urine for an entire 24 hour period, for example if you start at 8am on Sunday, then finish at 8am on Monday.
lf for some reason the collection is not complete (it is easy to forget a sample), then the collection is usually useless. If possible discard the collection and start again, but you may not have enough time before your hospital visit.
Keep the bottle next to the toilet and on the toilet door to prevent you forgetting.
Exactly 24 hour after you started the collection, empty your bladder, this time INTO THE CONTAINER, whether you feel you want to go or not. Note down on the bottle the date and time again, and ensure that the bottle is securely closed. 
Points to note.
It is not important how much urine you pass during the 24 hours, some people will pass less than half a bottle full and some will pass several bottles full. Do not drink more than usual to try to fill the bottle. If you Find that you need more than one bottle, try to get another from your GP or local hospital. In an emergency a clean glass or plastic bottle that has been thoroughly washed and rinsed with clean water will suffice for most tests. 
When you need to open your bowels, pass urine into the bottle first.
Ladies may find it easier to pass urine into a jug and then pour it into the container

Understanding Urine Tests
The urine tests are performed to monitor your kidney function, check for diabetes and other possible renal/kidney complications.

Ketones
What is it?:
A urine test that uses a reagent strip to check for the presence of ketones. Ketones spill into the urine when the body metabolizes, or breaks down, fat for fuel in the absence of glucose. They are often identifiable by their fruity odor.
Why is it performed?:
To check for ketoacidosis (diabetic coma). This test may also be performed as part of a routine urinalysis.
How frequently should it be done?:
Frequently if you are sick or if your blood sugar is unusually high.
What is the "normal" range for results?:
No or few ketones. Some ketones may be present after a short period of fasting. However, unless ketones are accompanied by high blood sugar levels, they usually don't pose a risk of ketoacidosis.
What do abnormal results mean?:
The possibility of impending ketoacidosis. If a moderate or high amount of ketones are present and blood sugar is high, seek medical help immediately.

Protein
Also known as: Proteinuria test, or "dipstick" test.
What is it?:
A test that detects protein in the urine. Healthy kidneys filter and absorb proteins; damaged or diseased kidneys are unable to properly process proteins and instead excrete them into the urine.
Why is it performed?:
To check for renal, or kidney, disease. This test may also be performed as part of a routine urinalysis.
How frequently should it be done?:
At least annually during follow up visits. It may be performed more frequently with those patients at risk for renal disease.
What is the "normal" range for results?: Up to 150 mg of protein excreted in a 24 hour period.
What do abnormal results mean?:
Moderate levels of protein (.5 to 4 g/24 hours) are often present in renal disease as a complication of diabetes. High levels (over 4 g/24 hours) occur in nephrotic syndrome. Proteinuria can also signal other urinary tract disorders.

Microalbumin
Also known as: Microalbuminuria test.
What is it?:
The microalbumin test checks for albumin, a protein, in the urine over a period of 24 hours. It is a more sensitive test than a "dipstick" protein test. It may be performed along with a creatinine clearance test.
Why is it performed?:
To assess kidney function and check for the presence of diabetic nephropathy.
How frequently should it be done?:
At least annually during follow up visits. It may be performed more frequently with those patients at risk for renal disease.
What is the "normal" range for results?:
Less than 30 mg/24 hours.
What do abnormal results mean?:
If microalbumin is present on several consecutive tests, it typically indicates the presence of diabetic nephropathy, or kidney disease due to diabetes. Bladder infection and/or nephritis can also cause an elevated microalbumin level.

Creatinine Clearance
What is it?
A urine test that measures the kidney's ability to filter creatinine from the blood. Creatinine is a metabolic byproduct of creatine, the acid that supplies energy for muscle contractions. Normal kidneys should filter creatinine into the urine at a constant rate. If kidney function is impaired, creatinine levels will be low.
Why is it performed?:
To assess renal function.
How frequently should it be done?:
At least annually, it may be performed more frequently with those patients at high risk for renal disease.
What is the "normal" range for results?:
85-146 ml/minute/1.73 m2 for men; 81-134 ml/minute/1.73 m2 for women.
What do abnormal results mean?:
Low levels indicate kidney disease (i.e., polycystic kidney disease, glomerulonephritis, renal cancer), congestive heart failure, or and/or severe dehydration.

Glucose
Also known as: . Glucosuria test; glucose oxidase; urinary sugar test.
What is it?:
A test for the presence of glucose in the urine. It measure glucose levels from several hours earlier, and results vary depending on the concentration of the urine.
Why is it performed?:
This test may be performed as part of a routine urinalysis. It generally is not used as a standalone measure of glucose levels any more, as blood glucose testing has replaced this function.
How frequently should it be done?:
At least annually during follow up visits. It may be performed more frequently with those patients at risk for renal disease.
What is the "normal" range for results?:
No glucose present (negative for glucose).
What do abnormal results mean?:
Elevated levels of glucose indicate the presence of sugar in the urine, which occurs when blood glucose reaches approximately 180 mg/dl or higher.

Urine Culture
What is it?:
A test for the presence of bacteria in urine.
Why is it performed?:
Under normal conditions, urine is sterile. The presence of bacteria typically indicates a urinary tract infection (UTI).
How frequently should it be done?:
When symptoms indicate a UTI.
What is the "normal" range for results?:
No growth of bacteria.
What do abnormal results mean?:
Urinary tract infection (e.g., bladder infection).

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